Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica


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The authors offer an original and analytically sophisticated assessment of the institutional and social incentives for fraud and for changes in voting rules.


  1. Lehoucq, Fabrice Edouard 1963-!
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Lehoucq and Molina's study is much more than just an investigation of politics in Costa Rica. They offer a general explanation for corruption in voting and they provide a serious data set on allegations of vote fraud over a lengthy time period and across several voting districts in Costa Rica.

Costa Rica Vote to Elect New Leaders

As Costa Rica has undergone dramatic changes in its electoral system and in the likely incidence of fraud over the past century, the data provide a wonderful foundation for anyone interested in investigating electoral reform. Betrokkenen Auteur Fabrice E. Reviews Schrijf een review.

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Michelle Obama Becoming [Engelstalig] 17, Bob Woodward Fear 12, Oliver Bullough Moneyland 7, Markus Zusak The Book Thief 8, Lucien Young Alice in Brexitland 6, Barry Eichengreen The Populist Temptation 17, Michael Wolff Fire and Fury 6, The switch from an electoral college to direct presidential elections reduced the ability of incumbents to influence selection of the next president.

Fraud was rarely a major determinant of outcomes, though in two PR-dominated Provincial Electoral Councils managed to annul a small number of votes, sending two additional PR members to Congress, and giving the PR a narrow majority in Congress. Since no presidential candidate had won an absolute majority, the Congress got to select the next president from among the front-runners--and as a result, the PR candidate won.

In an effort to legitimize his contested rise to the presidency, the winner in Jimenez pressed Congress to pass electoral reforms. He succeeded in passing a secret ballot.

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Toward the end of his term, he also succeeded in passing a state-printed Australian ballot. Both reforms occurred because Jimenez succeeded in manipulating a narrowly divided Congress; he also "went public," using the media to pressure legislators to go along. All these electoral reforms led parties and machines to seek new ways of influencing elections. Ironically, the electoral laws caused parties to turn to increasingly hard-handed and blatant tactics: intimidation, violence, false identification cards, etc.

Although President Picado was widely suspected of gaining the presidency because of his party's fraud, he soon endorsed a far-reaching Electoral Code He pushed against the main faction of his party in Congress and assembled a coalition to pass the reforms.

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These reforms probably would not have passed if not for the treat of civil war that hung over the country. Fearing civil war more than a loss of political power, reluctant legislators signed on. The opposition won the next election, and civil war broke out. Oddly, the reforms may have actually allowed the opposition to fraudulently win, thus causing the war.

Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica

At the end of the war, much stronger reforms were passed to protect elections. Please report inappropriate ads. We do not endorse services that facilitate plagiarism. Last modified , 14 August Viewed 5, times.

Maintained but not written by Adam Brown. Copyright policy. What is Wikisum? When I was in graduate school several years ago, my friends and I would routinely share our reading notes with one another. Eventually, I dumped them into this site to make them more searchable and accessible.

Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica
Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica
Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica
Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica
Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica
Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica
Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica
Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica

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