Ionization Waves in Electrical Breakdown of Gases


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Those components used in the previous examples as well are numbered the same way and explanations thereof are omitted. Immediately above this pipe 61 is installed a T-shaped pipe 62 for forming electric and magnetic fields. As a partial cross sectinal view of this pipe for forming electric'and magnetic fields 62 in Fig 7. The pole of the inner side of one set of magnets 63 e.

One end of the horizontal portion 62b of the electromagnetic field forming pipe 62 is closed, while the other end at right in Figure 7 is open. On the upper side of the inner wall of the horizontal portion 62b is affixed tightly a copper sheet 64 which is connected to the plus terminal of a DC power source 19, and the nozzle 31 is connected to the minus terminal of the DC power source, so that an electric field is formed between the copper sheet 84 and the nozzle 31 which ejects plasma-producing gas.

In addition, next to the open end of the pipe for forming electric and magnetic fields 62 and at a distance of about 10 mm from it is installed a generator channel How this model works is explained below: Steam which is ejected from the nozzle 31 goes up through the collection pipe 61 together with the air around it. The steam and air are ionized while proceeding through the electric field formed between the copper sheet 64 and the nozzle As the ionized electrons and ions continue to advance and reach the magnetic field formed by the magnets 83, the electrons and most of the ions drift to the right in the diagram affected by the strong electric field and the rising force of the steam.

Thus, while part of the electrons are captured by the copper sheet 64, the remaining electrons and ions drift to the right-supposing the magnets 63 of this side in the diagram form the N pole the line of magnetic force runs, in this diagram, from the obverse of the paper through the reverse of the paper - and enter the generator channel Inside the generator channel 32, the electrons and ions are captured, due to the Lorentz force, by the two opposing pole plates respectively and are detected by the instruments 18 and 20 as voltages and currents generated.

The readings which were obtained in this experiment are shown in the following Table 5: Table 5. In comparison with the previous examples, extraordinarily high voltages were generated in this example. Table 6 below shows the readings which were obtained by the instruments 18 and 20 when compressed air alone, instead of steam, was ejected from the nozzle 31 under the same conditions. The above readings clearly show that no active ionization took place when only compressed air was used.

Figure 8 illustrates a model to explain a method of producing plasma by making a plasma-producing gas consisting of steam and air flow through an electric field. More specifically, this example offers a model which can be applied to E. Electro-Gas-Dynamics generation. Those components used in the previous examples as well are numbered the same way. Component No. The copper sheet 72 which is tightly affixed to the inner wall of the pipe 71 is connected to the plus terminal of a DC power source 6 KV, micro A 18, while the minus terminal of the power source 19 is connected to the nozzle 31 so that an electric field is formed between the copper sheet 72 and the nozzle Furthermore, about 15 mm above the electric field forming pipe 71 is installed a receiving pipe 73 of the same diameter and length.

The upper end of this receiving pipe 73 is covered by a metal wire net cap 52 similar to that used in the Third Example, and the instruments 18 and 20 are connected between the cap 52 and the nozzle Now, steam which is ejected from the nozzle 31 flows into the electric field forming pipe 71 together with the air around it, and, while going through the pipe, is ionized, being subjected to an electric field effect and multiplication effect of ionization through collision. Thus, ionized electrons are promptly captured by the copper sheet plate Plus ions, on the other hand, rise because of the strong ejecting force of the plasma-producing gas and neutral particles from below despite the influence of the minus plate nozzle 31 to attract ions toward the nozzle, pass through the center of the pipe 71 due to the repulsive effect from the copper plate 72, and reach the cap 52, where they are captured and measured by the instruments 18 and 20 as electric current genarated.

In other words, those plus ions which have been produced and flowed into the receiving pipe 73, are the only kind of charged praticles existing in the direction of the flow, so that according to Poisson's Law, a strong electric field is formed in such a way as to pull back the plus ions. What pushes them forward despite this resisting force is the power of the flow of mixed neutral particles produced from the water vapor which comes out of the nozzle 31, and thus the work which this force does to the ions is extracted and turns into electrical energy.

This example has demonstrated that electrically charged unipolar particles, i. Tables 7 and 8 below show the readings of this example taken by the instruments 18 and 20 respectively using steam and compressed air as the plasma-producing gas:. As in the previous examples, compressed air alone used as the plasma-prooducing gas failed to produce plasma in this example, either. The plasma-producing gas ejected from the nozzle 31 is ionized while going up through the pipe The ionized gas then flows into a power generation channel 32 which is installed about 10 mm above the pipe 81, and the ions are captured there and measured by the instruments 18 and 20 as voltages and currents generated.

Given below are the readings obtained by the instruments 18 and 20 Table 8 together with those obtained when compressed air alone was used Table When compressed air alone was used, no generation of current or voltage was detected. Figure 10 offers a model in which a gas other than air e. An air-tight chamber of a certain cubic capacity occupies the space between the plasma-producing pipe 91 and the nozzle 31 to form a gas mixing room 92 into which the above gas is introduced from an outlet Steam ejected from the nozzle 31 is mixed with the above gas and the mixed gas is then made to flow into a plasma producing pipe 91 which is placed above the nozzle The foregoing has demonstrated that plasma producing method disclosed by this invention makes it possible to produce plasma with ease at relatively low temperatues.

It has also been demonstrated that the method offered by this invention makes it possible to control the volume of plasma-producing gas flow with ease so that a desired volume of ionized gas may be obtained without requiring complex equipment. This invention is expected to make a useful contribution to improved efficiency in various plasma utilization areas such as, for example, M. A method to produce plasma by introducing a plasma-producing gas consisting of at least steam into an area where at least either an electric field or a of field electromagnetic waves is formed, and by having the said plasma-producing gas ionized in the said area.

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Method of creating a plasma by combustion of a gas or a vapour by means of a high electrostatic voltage. Plasma tool for production of cold plasma stream including hollow body for feeding process gas, frequency generator and voltage coil useful for treating inner and outer surfaces of components avoids use of air dielectric capacitors.

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Ionization waves in electron-beam-assisted, shielded capillary discharge

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See our disclaimer. Ionization Waves in Electrical Breakdown of Gases The authors present a systematic theoretical treatment of phenomena that lead to electrical breakdown of gases and plasmas bounded by walls, including electron drift and impact ionization, diffusion, and photoionization. Starting with a review of breakdown waves in gas-filled gaps, the book continues with a discussion of the basic macroscopic equations, including the effects of the nonequilibrium kinetics of electrons and impact ionization.

The authors then develop the theory of planar ionization waves, discussing conditions for the existence of waves, the formation of shocks, and the stability of stationary waves; they also discuss formation of solitary waves, nonlinear diffusion, mechanisms of propagation, and oscillations in the wake of an ionization wave. This work fills a gap in the Western literature by presenting details of Soviet and Russian results from the last decade. Abstract Authors References.

Abstract A theory of propagation of cathode-directed ionization waves during the early stages of an electrical breakdown in a shielded, low-pressure capillary is developed.

Ionization vs Recombination or Deionization - Gas to Plasma & Vice Versa

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Ionization Waves in Electrical Breakdown of Gases Ionization Waves in Electrical Breakdown of Gases
Ionization Waves in Electrical Breakdown of Gases Ionization Waves in Electrical Breakdown of Gases
Ionization Waves in Electrical Breakdown of Gases Ionization Waves in Electrical Breakdown of Gases
Ionization Waves in Electrical Breakdown of Gases Ionization Waves in Electrical Breakdown of Gases
Ionization Waves in Electrical Breakdown of Gases Ionization Waves in Electrical Breakdown of Gases
Ionization Waves in Electrical Breakdown of Gases Ionization Waves in Electrical Breakdown of Gases
Ionization Waves in Electrical Breakdown of Gases Ionization Waves in Electrical Breakdown of Gases

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