Air War Europa Chronology


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These selected start dates can also be called scenarios. They can be found under the Historical Start tab of the singleplayer or multiplayer start screens.


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There are 15 different Historical Start bookmarks in the game, four of which are set during the same date and are simply meant to add flavour to certain areas of the world. Several nations are designated as interesting, these are represented by large shields in the bottom part of the screen. A handful of those are marked as beginner-friendly, recommended for new players to play. Their shields glow green to differentiate them from other interesting nations. This left the Albanian armies under the capable general Skanderbeg to fend off the Ottoman armies alone, which they would do for the next 24 years.

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Also in that same year, in Mainz , Johannes Gutenburg set up his moveable type printing press. Earlier that year Ferdinand and Isabella of Castile completed the Reconquista, a nearly eight-hundred year struggle against the Islamic invaders, expelling the last Muslim dynasty from the Iberian peninsula. This was the beginning of the intricate and internecine Italian Wars , which ravaged the peninsula for more than fifty years.

Historically at the end of this phase of the wars, Venice and France came out ahead. The power of the papacy was checked, and would be further challenged by the onset of the Reformation. The war might have remained a localized Bohemian rebellion except for some major conflating factors: other member states of the Protestant Union took it as a sign for a general rebellion, and began to occupy parts of Austria. An army was even sent to siege Vienna itself. Secondly, the Holy Roman Emperor Matthias promptly died in March of , and left his realm to none other than the ousted Ferdinand. Once Emperor, Ferdinand set about gathering allies, including his Habsburg nephew who happened to be the king of Spain.

Thirdly was the umbrage against involvement of the Turks. Bohemia was crushed. Frederick V was removed from power and exiled. For his short reign, he would be thereafter known as "the Winter King.

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Meanwhile, in a truce in the Dutch wars expired, and the Huguenot minority population in France would rebel, bringing in a new theater of war. The conflict would continue to roil Europe in vicious infighting, inspired by hubris, avarice and by deeply philosophical differences in the interpretation of the word of God. Charles would prove to be the last Habsburg king of Spain.

The Bourbon Philip V would eventually be recognized as his successor, but only by agreeing to give up his place in the succession of France. Though there had been battles and skirmishes in colonial and overseas holdings before, the Seven Years' War can rightly be thought of as the first 'world war,' with conflict occurring in Europe, North and South America, Africa, Asia and in the Pacific.

In the campaigns between Prussia and Sweden , it would be known as the Pomeranian War. And back in Britain, Captain James Cook set out on his third, final, and fatal expedition to the Pacific.


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While in Scotland, a book was published that would influence the course of global trade and capitalism thereafter: Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations. The American Revolution was a symptom of underlying change occurring in the world. The Age of Enlightenment was challenging traditional notions of the rights of kings, and the Americans drew upon the republican arguments of philosophers like John Locke. After seeing the American example, and now the French crisis, the monarchs of Europe did not take this republican threat idly. Once the nascent Republic declared war against the Bourbon Emperor of Austria , and the imprisoned French monarch Louis and his wife, Marie Antoinette, were executed by guillotine they closed ranks.

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This became known as the War of the First Coalition. But the coalition fell apart, and France's victory in the war stunned the world. By the turn of the century a daring officer would rise through the republican ranks following his campaigns in Italy and Egypt. Among those who were perplexed by the apparent submissiveness of the American people as the Depression descended was Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Repeatedly he spoke of this, saying that it was enormously puzzling to him that the ordeal of the past three years had been endured so peaceably.


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Those elusive but deep-seated and powerful American cultural characteristics go a long way toward explaining the challenge that faced any leader seeking to broaden the powers of government to combat the Depression. Elected to the presidency in on a platform that promised "a new deal for the American people," Franklin Roosevelt now took up that challenge. He faced a task of compound difficulty: he had to find ways to counter-punch to the Depression crisis, put in place reforms that would make future such crises less likely, and convince his countrymen of the legitimacy of his precedent-shattering initiatives.

FDR was destined to hold office for more than a dozen years. He was thrice re-elected, a record matched by no previous incumbent and forbidden to all future presidents by the passage of the Twenty-second Amendment to the Constitution in FDR was then and has remained ever since a surpassingly enigmatic figure. His personality perplexed his contemporaries and has challenged his biographers ever since. His long-serving secretary of labor, Frances Perkins, called him "the most complicated human being I ever knew.

It is appropriate to call it a vision: that American life could be made more secure. Roosevelt, like Hoover before him, never did find a remedy for the Great Depression. It hung heavily over the land for nearly a dozen years of suffering and anxiety without equal in the history of the republic.

For the decade of the s as a whole, it averaged 17 percent. They gave birth to other institutions as well, including the Federal Housing Authority FHA and the Federal National Mortgage Association "Fannie Mae" to make mortgage lending more secure, thereby unleashing the money and the energy that made a majority of Americans homeowners and built the suburbs of the Sunbelt after World War II. They passed the Fair Labor Standards Act, abolishing at last the scourge of child labor and establishing minimum wage guarantees.

Most famously, with the Social Security Act of they erected a comprehensive system of unemployment and old-age insurance to protect laid-off workers and the elderly against what FDR called "the hazards and vicissitudes of life. These were on the whole market-enhancing, not market-encroaching initiatives. They sought not to nationalize core industries as commonly occurred in European states , nor even to attempt central direction of the national economy, but rather to use federal power in artful ways to make the private economy function more efficiently and less riskily as well as more fairly.

The New Deal serves to this day as a political talisman, invoked variously by Left or Right to promote or denounce activist government or an enlarged public sphere.

So by what historical standard should the New Deal be judged? If appraised on grounds of swiftly achieving economic recovery, despite some modest success, the New Deal must be declared a failure. And on those grounds the New Deal can be said to have succeeded handsomely. Roosevelt most explicitly acknowledged that larger ambition in his second Inaugural Address in , when he boasted that "our progress out of the depression is obvious," but then added the startling observation that "such symptoms of prosperity may become portents of disaster.

What could Roosevelt have meant when he linked economic recovery with political disaster? A clue may be found in the passage that immediately followed on that Inaugural Day. He was talking, rather, about those farmers and immigrants and African Americans who had long languished on the margins of American life and whom he hoped to usher into its main stream. One test of the logic of this argument might be to ask: If FDR had somehow found the solution to the Depression by, say, the end of the fabled but in the last analysis scarcely consequential Hundred Days in , would there have been a New Deal as we know it?

Save only FDIC, all the reforms mentioned above date from and thereafter. If the economy had been immediately restored to full health, it is at least arguable that business as usual would have meant politics as usual, and the United States would have missed what FDR called its "Rendezvous with Destiny"—that is, its chance to tame at last the volatile and destructive demon of no-holds-barred industrial capitalism whose unchecked gyrations had ravaged lives—and fortunes—for nearly a century before the s.

The world the American people had tried to exclude after the First World War could not forever be kept at bay. Adolf Hitler and Franklin Roosevelt came to power within weeks of one another.

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Hitler was installed as the German chancellor on January 30, ; Roosevelt was inaugurated as President of the United States just thirty-three days later, on March 4. The challenges of the Great Depression and the accomplishments and shortcomings of the New Deal, and of FDR, cannot be understood outside of that framework.

The Japanese attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, , brought the United States into the war as a formal belligerent—more than two years after the war had begun with the German invasion of Poland on September 1, Yet while it has become a commonplace to note that the Pearl Harbor attack dramatically extinguished American isolationism, the fact is that traditional isolationist sentiment was by that time already markedly diminished—and that anxieties about its possible revival animated American leaders throughout the conflict and well into the postwar period.

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